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                         Notes about the sound drivers

        Be sure to check the driver screen (Shift-F5) of your soundcard!

  I often get asked what soundcard I believe is the best.

  My favourite soundcards are:
    Terratec EWS64 XL (http://www.terratec.de)
    ViperMAX
    Sound Blaster AWE32

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                                 Driver Summary

Driver                  Def/Max   Quick- Stereo  Bits  Mixing Rate/Resolution
                        Channels  select               MIDI In/Out available?

PC Speaker              64/256     /S1     No    5-7    12->44kHz
DAC on LPT              64/256             No     8     12->44kHz
GUS, Hardware *         32/32      /S7     Yes    16    19->44kHz (A)
GUSMAX, Software *      64/256             Yes    16    8->64kHz
Interwave, Hardware *   32/32      /S8     Yes    16    44kHz, MIDI In + Out
Sound Blaster 1.0 *     64/256     /S2     No     8     12kHz->22kHz
Sound Blaster 2.0 *     64/256     /S3     No     8     12kHz->44kHz
Sound Blaster Pro *     64/256     /S4     Yes    8     6kHz->22kHz (B)
                                           No     8     12kHz->44kHz (B)
Sound Blaster 16 *      64/256     /S5     Yes    16    12kHz->44kHz, MIDI In
Sound Blaster AWE 32*   30/30              Yes    16    44kHz, MIDI In + Out
Pro Audio Spectrum      64/256     /S9     Yes    8     12->44kHz
Pro Audio Spectrum 16   64/256     /S10    Yes    16    12->44kHz
Windows Sound System *  64/256     /S11    Yes    16    8->64kHz
ESS 1868 AudioDrive *   64/256     /S12    Yes    16    22->56.8kHz, MIDI In
ESS 1688 AudioDrive     64/256             Yes    16    8->48kHz
EWS64 Codec *           64/256     /S13    Yes    16    8->48kHz
Ensoniq SoundscapeVIVO* 64/256     /S14    Yes    16    8->48kHz
SoundTrack PCI *        64/256             Yes    16    8->48kHz

MPU401 MIDI Driver      -          /S19     -     -     MIDI In + Out

Disk Writer *           256/256    /S20    Yes    16    8->64kHz

* = Driver will play in the background of Windows '95

Notes
A) Depends on number of channels used. The hiquality GUS driver reinitialises
   the GUS continually to use as few channels as necessary. Some GUS cards
   cannot cope with this and you will need to use the alternative ITGUSLO.DRV
   instead.
B) The mixing rate of the SBPro depends on whether playback is stereo or mono

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PC Speaker (ITPCSPKR.DRV)

        Nothing much else to say here, except... GET A SOUND CARD! :)

        Note: On the info page, using the 'variables' display WILL distort
              PC Speaker output. Also, it has been found that the Info Page
              screens and the Pattern Editor cause a noticeably higher amount
              of hiss through the speaker.

        Note: This driver *MAY NOT* work on laptop's piezo-electric speakers.

        Note: No driver screen available.

        Note: Not for use with Win95

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DAC on LPT 1/2 Drivers

        These drivers are almost exactly the same as the PC speaker drivers,
        with only minor modifications.

        To use these, run IT /sITLPT1.DRV or IT /sITLPT2.DRV - depending on
        which LPT you have your DAC plugged into.

        Note: If you're interested in building your own parallel port DAC,
              check out: http://www.dnc.net/users/collver/dac.htm

        Note: No driver screen available.

        Note: On the info page, using the 'variables' display WILL distort
              PC Speaker output. Also, it has been found that the Info Page
              screens and the Pattern Editor cause a noticeably higher amount
              of hiss through the speaker.


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Gravis UltraSound, Hardware mixing (ITGUS.DRV)

        This file actually contains two drivers in one file. The first is
        accessed just by using IT (with no command line parameters, or with
        /s7 for Gravis UltraSound). This is equivalent to the original
        internal driver that came with previous versions of Impulse Tracker.

        The second driver is selected by providing the correct IRQ for the
        GF1 chip. (The second-to-last number of your ULTRASND environment
        variable). This is an IRQ driven routine, which means that it'll
        work in the background of Windows '95. But note that the timing for
        this is NOT as accurate as the timing in the first driver. There is
        also a possibility that multitasking OSs can sometimes (although
        rarely) cause some settings to the GUS to be missed (which will cause
        a note to play unexpectedly). This can be fixed just by restarting
        playback. There is NO check for the correctness of the IRQ provided.
        Note that the IRQ driven routine doesn't seem to work on all
        computers either.. :(

        The Gravis UltraSound *CANNOT* cope with 16-bit samples greater than
        256k-bytes. This is equivalent to 128k-length samples. Also, 16-bit
        samples cannot cross 256k boundaries on the GUS, meaning that the
        amount of memory you have on the card may decrease by more than you
        expect when you load a 16-bit sample.

        You cannot choose the mixing rate for the GUS - the mixing rate is
        dependent on the number of channels playing. This driver continuously
        reinitialises the GUS to use as few channels as possible. You can
        further restrict the number of channels used with /Lxx on the command
        line of Impulse Tracker.

Gravis UltraSound 2, Hardware mixing (ITGUS2.DRV)

        If the first Gravis UltraSound driver clicks continuously when nothing
        is supposed to be playing, use this driver ("IT /sITGUS2.DRV").

        This driver file also contains two drivers - check above on how to
        access the second driver.

Gravis UltraSound Lo-freq, Hardware mixing (ITGUSLO.DRV)

        Only use this driver if notes do *NOT* finish playing off correctly
        on your GUS. ("IT /sITGUSLO.DRV" or copy ITGUSLO.DRV over ITGUS.DRV)
        This driver does not try to continuously reinitialise the card to use
        a minimum number of channels like the above two drivers do.

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Gravis Ultrasound MAX - Software mixing (ITGUSMAX.DRV)

        This device has ONLY been included because it works for SOME people.
        It has NEVER worked under Win95 with GUS drivers installed as far as
        I know. If it doesn't work for you - I'm sorry, you'll have to use
        the hardware drivers. Don't write to me and complain if they don't
        work for you - you probably won't get a reply.

        To use this driver, you MUST specify your GUSMAX's Codec IRQ *AND*
        DMA on the command line as:

               IT /sITGUSMAX.DRV /i<irq> /d<dma>

        If you want to specify a port (which should be auto-detected OK),
        the port is of the Codec, NOT the GUS's Base Address.
        (ie. 32Ch NOT 220h)

        Note: After some testing, it *seems* that you'll need an ULTRINIT
        of version 2.28a or above to use this driver...

Here's part of an EMail that I received from Jarkko Seppanen on how he got
ITGUSMAX.DRV working:

I just found a weird way to make the GUS MAX software mixer to work (for me,
at least). I normally use DMA 6 for playback and DMA 7 for recording. I was
playing around with IT and trying to get the driver to work and changed
both DMAs to 1. And for my surprise it started to work. Next I tried it
with both DMAs 6, with the same result. But the funny thing is, when I
first play a song with both DMAs the same and then change them back to the
original (6 and 7), it still works. I'm using IT v2.11 with ultrinit v2.31.

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InterWave Driver - Hardware mixing (ITIW.DRV)
 (This includes GUS PnP, GUS PnP Pro, WavExtreme 32 Pro + more)

        You *NEED* to have RAM onboard your soundcard to use this driver,
        otherwise your Interwave card will NOT be detected.

        This file actually contains two drivers in one file. The first is
        accessed just by using IT (with no command line parameters, or with
        /s8 for AMD Interwave IC). This is similar to the original internal
        GUS driver that came with previous versions of Impulse Tracker.

        The second driver is selected by providing the correct IRQ for the
        Interwave chip. (This is the value given in Windows'95/settings/
        control panel/system/Interwave SYNTH/IRQ). This is an IRQ driven
        routine, which means that it'll work in the background of Windows '95.
        But note that the timing for this is NOT as accurate as the timing in
        the first driver. There is also a possibility that multitasking OSs
        can sometimes (although rarely) cause some settings to the GUS to be
        missed (which will cause a note to play unexpectedly). This can be
        fixed just by restarting playback (or reinitialising in severe cases).

        There is NO check for the correctness of the IRQ provided.

        The Interwave driver contains handlers for two different memory modes
        on the Interwave - the more memory efficient mode is where the amount
        of ram is directly compatible with the interwave, the second is where
        the DRAM configuration is NOT directly compatible with the interwave
        and the driver has to handle the RAM slightly more explicitly, which
        causes the loss of memory-usage efficiency.

        Here are the modes directly compatible with the interwave:

     Bank 0         Bank 1          Bank 2          Bank 3          Total
      256Kb          0               0               0              256Kb
      256Kb          256Kb           0               0              512Kb
      256Kb          256Kb           256Kb           256Kb           1MB
      256Kb          1MB             0               0             1.25MB
      256Kb          1MB             1MB             1MB           3.25MB
      256Kb          256Kb           1MB             0              1.5MB
      256Kb          256Kb           1MB             1MB            2.5MB
      1MB            0               0               0               1MB
      1MB            1MB             0               0               2MB
      1MB            1MB             1MB             1MB             4MB
      4MB            0               0               0               4MB
    * 4MB            4MB             0               0               8MB
    * 4MB            4MB             4MB             4MB            16MB

    * These modes cannot be handled by the first driver, so are actually
      handled in the second mode.

        The mixing rate for the Interwave driver is fixed at 44100Hz
        (CD quality)

      Bug warning: If the sound does NOT play properly, you may need to
                   run IWINIT before running Impulse Tracker

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Sound Blaster 1.0 driver (ITSB.DRV)

        The Sound Blaster has a mixing range of 12000->21739 Hz. You CANNOT
        hear any stereo (or surround) effects with this driver, because the
        Sound Blaster does NOT support stereo.

        Hardware detection routines are used for Address (eg. 220h),
        environment is checked for IRQ and DMA.

        Command line arguments for IRQ and DMA are NOT checked but assumed
        correct IF this driver is explicitly selected
        (IT /s2 or IT /sITSB.DRV).

Sound Blaster 2.0 driver (ITSB2.DRV)

        The Sound Blaster 2 driver is basically the same as the Pro driver
        with stereo options removed... (ie SB2 cannot do stereo). The
        mixing range is from 12000 to 43478 Hz.

        Hardware detection routines are used for Address (eg. 220h),
        environment is checked for IRQ and DMA.

        Command line arguments for IRQ and DMA are NOT checked but assumed
        correct IF this driver is explicitly selected (IT /s3 or
        IT /sITSB2.DRV).

Sound Blaster Pro driver (ITSBPRO.DRV)

        The Sound Blaster Pro has a mixing range of 12000->43478 in mono mode,
        or 6000->21739 in stereo mode.

        Hardware detection routines are used for Address (eg. 220h),
        environment is checked for IRQ and DMA.

        Command line arguments for IRQ and DMA are NOT checked but assumed
        correct IF this driver is explicitly selected
        (IT /s4 or IT /sITSBPRO.DRV).

Sound Blaster 16 driver (ITSB16.DRV, ITSB16B.DRV, ITSB16C.DRV)

        The Sound Blaster 16 has a mixing range of 12000->45454 in either mono
        or stereo modes.

        If you specify this driver ( IT /s5 or IT /sITSB16.DRV ) AND an IRQ
        or DMA, IT will try to *FORCE* the SB16 to use the IRQ/DMA.

        eg. On my system, I have my SB16 configured to IRQ 2, DMA 5, but I
        can force it to use IRQ 7, DMA 0 with IT /s5 /i7 /d0

        Hardware detection routines are used for all Address, IRQ and DMA.

        Note: If you select either of the 32-bit mixing modes, then volumes
        between 0->32768 are used internally instead of 0->128.

        The second driver, ITSB16B.DRV is a cut down version of the main
        driver which does NOT have the advanced mixing options - the only
        benefit of this is that it requires less memory. To use this, type:
        "IT /sITSB16B.DRV". If you want to have this file automatically used
        just copy it over ITSB16.DRV.

        To get MIDI input, I had to do this in Win95:

        Goto "My Computer", right click -> properties -> device manager ->
        sound, video and multimedia -> SB16/AWE32 DSP

        Now go to the "resources" tab, and unclick "Use automatic settings"

        Either:
          1) Change your MIDI port from 300h to 330h or
          2) Select a 'basic configuration' which doesn't include the MIDI port

        ( 3) Get an updated driver from Creative Labs, if they've fixed it )

        Click OK, then click OK on the warning message.

        There is a good chance that it should work now. I believe this is a
        bug in the older Win95 SB16 drivers. (I *know* that the SB16 driver
        I have prevents MIDI in DOS boxes and is the cause of these problems
        because if I remove it, MIDI works flawlessly in DOS boxes in in Win95)

;---------- ITSB16C.DRV --------

        I finally managed to encounter a computer which wouldn't accept IT's
        old SB16 drivers - and hence I created ITSB16C.DRV.
        If you run ITSB16.DRV and the playback cursor does NOT move, then
        you MUST close your Win95 box (or restart your computer), *then* run:

          IT /sITSB16C.DRV

        This driver is similar to ITSB16B.DRV in that it is a cut down
        version of the full SB16 driver, but this one also has the MIDI
        input disabled (which seems to be causing all the problems on the
        cards which just won't 'play')

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Sound Blaster AWE 32 drivers (ITAWE32.DRV, ITAWE32B.DRV)

        The Sound Blaster AWE 32 driver directly uses the EMU8000 synth chip.
        This synth chip has several limitations which you should be aware of:

         ù It can only use 16-bit samples.
           8 bit samples are automatically converted by IT (so that's not a
           problem), but your free memory may decrease by double of what you
           expect. (eg. you will need at least 1MB of memory to load 512k
           of 8 bit samples)

         ù It doesn't support ping pong loops or no loops.
           IT will automatically expand ping pong loops and will pad non-looped
           samples with silence, but this makes sample sustain loops impossible
           to implement fully. It also means that ping pong looped samples
           could take up to double the memory of forwards looped samples.

           Sustain loops will NOT operate on the AWE32 driver. Instead, they
           will be treated as NORMAL loops.

           If you change the loop type from none->forwards or
           forwards->ping pong or ping pong->none, you WILL need to reload
           the samples each time (Ctrl-G). If you change the loop points on
           a sample, you *will* have to reload the samples (Ctrl-G)

         ù Has a limited frequency range - from the programming information,
           it seems that it is impossible to play a note at above 176kHz.
           This equates to any notes 2 octaves above middle C (or higher) for
           a sample at 44kHz. If a note is not played because of this
           frequency limitation, a message will show at the top of the screen
           indicating that the frequency range has been exceeded.

        Note: The Address used for the SB AWE 32 is the address of the EMU8000,
              NOT the address of your SB. (for command line params, eg A660)

        Note: This driver is NOT used as a default, as many users would benefit
              more from the SB16 driver. (I recommend having at least 2MB
              of memory if you want to use this driver). Run "IT /s6" if you
              do want to use this driver.

        Note: This driver can operate in Win95. In this mode, it uses a
              different mechanism which allows the playing of music in the
              background, but timing is *NOT* as accurate here (accurate to
              around 100 milli seconds as opposed to 800 nano seconds per
              frame)

        Note: The second driver, ITAWE32B.DRV, is for people who do *NOT* have
              a floating point unit (ie. 386, 486SX computers). ITAWE32.DRV
              is preferred as it requires less memory.

              To access ITAWE32B.DRV, run "IT /sITAWE32B.DRV"

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Pro Audio Spectrum (ITPAS.DRV)
Pro Audio Spectrum 16 (ITPAS16.DRV)

        BIG thanks to Pelusa for VITAL programming information for this!!
        BIG thanks to MZ/PoP for lending me a PAS16 to stuff around with!!

        Note: These drivers will *NOT* work in the background of Win95,
              although they will work fine in the foreground.

        Note: You NEED to have the MVSOUND.SYS driver installed for these
              to operate or a Window's system driver.

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Windows Sound System (ITWSS.DRV, ITWSS2.DRV)

     Again, BIG thanks to Pelusa for VITAL programming information for this!

     ITWSS is a 16-bit driver, with output frequencies ranging from 8kHz to
     64kHz (!). Mixing speeds above 48kHz *MAY* not work on all Windows
     Sound System Cards.

     ITWSS.DRV is a completely IRQ driven routine. Although this may not be
     compatible with *ALL* soundcards, it permits background playback in
     Windows'95 and is FAR MORE EFFICIENT than ITWSS2.DRV. ITWSS2.DRV should
     be used if ITWSS doesn't operate properly.

     Note: There is *NO* autodetection on IRQ/DMA. You *will* need to set
     these on the command line if they are not IRQ7/DMA1.

     If you *DO* specify IRQ and/or DMA, then it must be DMA 0, 1 or 3,
     and IRQ 7, 9 10 or 11. Impulse Tracker will attempt to SET the DMA/IRQ
     of your WSS card to these values, in a similar manner to how the SB16
     driver operates.

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ESS ES1868 AudioDrive (ITES1868.DRV)

    The drivers for the ESS ES1868 AudioDrive use the PnP registers to
    detect/configure this soundcard. If you have disabled the PnP on the
    card the driver may not work...

    The default mixing rate is 44kHz, although the card can handle up to 56kHz

    Thanks go out to Diablo for pointing me in the right direction to find
    the programming information and Andrew Lee for lending me a card to
    program with!

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ESS ES1688 AudioDrive (ITES1688.DRV)

    This driver was written for Synergy ViperMAX / GUS Extreme soundcards,
    so that the codec may be used to write songs > 1MB large.

    Thanks go to James Hsu / Synergy for providing me with a card to work on.

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EWS64 XL Codec (ITEWSCOD.DRV)

    Like the ESS ES1868 Audiodrive, this card uses the PnP registers to
    detect/configure the soundcard. The default mixing rate is set at 48kHz

    Big thanks go out to the entire TerraTec team for providing me with a
    card to use - especially Kay "Mod4Win" Bruns.

    Notes:
    þ The settings within the EWS64 Codec driver are saved upon exiting.

    þ The "Reverb Types" are:
        0: Room1
        1: Room2
        2: Room3
        3: Hall1
        4: Hall2
        5: Plate
        6: Delay
        7: Pan Delay

      The parameter "Reverb Feedback" only has meaning for Reverb Types Delay
      and Pan Delay (6 and 7)

    þ The "Chorus Types" are:
        0: Chorus1
        1: Chorus2
        2: Chorus3
        4: Feedback Chorus
        5: Flanger
        6: Short Delay
        7: Feedback Delay

      Note: Chorus will only work with EWS64 XL rev 1.1 or greater

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Ensoniq SoundscapeVIVO (ITVIVO.DRV)

    The drivers for the Ensoniq SoundscapeVIVO use the PnP registers to
    detect/configure this soundcard. If you have disabled the PnP on the
    card the driver may not work...

    The default mixing rate is 48kHz.

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Sound Track PCI Codec (ITSTCODE.DRV)

    This driver uses the PCI registers to autodetect the card. Unfortunately
    this does not always seem to be the correct value, hence you may have to
    override the parameters on the command line. (The computer *MAY* hang if
    the correct values are not available!)

    Sound Track 97 PCI and Sound Track 42 PCI cards are handled by this driver.

    The 'extra' settings of reverb, chorus, echo, equalizer and surround are
    not available on the ST42 cards. SRS settings are available.

    Notes:
    þ The settings within the ST97 PCI Codec driver are saved upon exiting.

    þ The "Reverb Types" are:
        0: Room1
        1: Room2
        2: Room3
        3: Hall1
        4: Hall2
        5: Plate
        6: Delay
        7: Pan Delay

      The parameter "Reverb Feedback" only has meaning for Reverb Types Delay
      and Pan Delay (6 and 7)

    þ The "Chorus Types" are:
        0: Chorus1
        1: Chorus2
        2: Chorus3
        4: Feedback Chorus
        5: Flanger
        6: Short Delay
        7: Feedback Delay

    Huge thanks go to Hanmesoft Corporation for providing me with this awesome
    card to work on! (check out http://www.hoontech.com)

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MPU401 MIDI Driver

    The MPU401 MIDI driver provides a MIDI Driver to support MIDI Input and
    MIDI Output on general soundcards. It does NOT support sample playback
    at all. Trying to play a sample will result in the note being 'terminated'
    immediately.

    To use this driver, you may need to provide the MIDI port on the command
    line;

    eg. "IT /s19 /a360"

    Addresses 330h and 300h are checked if a port is NOT specified.

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Disk Writer

        The ITWAV.DRV included with distribution IT is a mono-only
        example device. To use it, run IT /sITWAV.DRV or IT /s20

        The full ITWAV.DRV file which *IS* capable of stereo output
        is NOT available for public distribution. Contact me if you
        wish to obtain this - it will NOT be made available without
        some sort of (monetary) agreement (US$30 for non-profit use)

        Details
         þ 16 bit Stereo/Mono output
         þ 22kHz to 64kHz output frequency
         þ 16 bit quadratic spline interpolation (65536x 'oversampling')
         þ 32 bit mixing
         þ Logarithmic volume ramping with 32768 internal volumes levels.
         þ Sample cut click removal techniques
         þ Resonant filtering

        To use the disk writer, run: "IT /sITWAV.DRV" or "IT /s20".
        The files will be created in the same directory as IT.EXE,
        and will be of .WAV format. You can change the destination
        directory on the diskwriter's driver screen (Shift-F5.)

        It is greatly suggested to use a disk cache to improve the
        writing speed.

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